Atomic Number: 26 Period Number: 4 Group Number: 8
Iron is the most common metal and rank No. 4 in the elements which forming the earth's crust. Archaeological evidence suggests that people have been use iron thousands of years. There are four isotopes of iron in nature: 54Fe, 56Fe, 57Fe and 58Fe.
Iron can be used in so many ways mainly because its properties can be changed by alloying it with other substances. Most of iron are used to make steel and there are about 27 different types of steel. In each of them, iron combine with carbon, nickel, silicon, etc, also can be modified by changing the percentages of the substances. Steel is essential for various construction work. This is because it has the strength that can withstand both high pressure as well as high temperature. The framework of many buildings, including sky scrapers and bridges, are built with alloyed steel. It is also used in the bodies or frames of heavy carriers like ships and heavy machinery. Some automobile parts and machine parts are also made up of steel. Tungsten steel is required for making cutting and drilling tools that can cut hard metals. An alloy of iron and niobium is exceptionally strong and is used for the construction of nuclear reactors.
There are many kinds of iron compounds. Iron(II) chloride is used to make water clean. Iron(II) sulfate is used to reduce chromates in cement. Some iron compounds are used for vitamin because iron plays a important role in the creation chlorophy II in plant and is an essential part of hemoglobin, the substance that carries oxygen within red blood cells.
Physical and Chemical properties:
Atomic Weight: 55.845
Melting Point: 1811 K
Boiling Point: 3134 K
Density: 7.874 g/cm3
Phase at Room Temperature: Solid
Element Classification: Metal
Ionization Energy: 7.902 eV
Oxidation States: +3, +2
Wikipedia - Basics on Iron
WebElements - The basic elements of Iron
Jefferson Lab - Learning about Iron