Atomic Number: 41 Period Number: 5 Group Number: 5
Niobium is a soft and grey transition metal. There is no free Niobium in nature and most of them exist in minerals and ores. There are just one stable isotope of Niobium in nature: 93Nb.
Most of Niobium are used in making jewelry and steel. Niobium is used with iron and other elements in stainless steel alloys and also in alloys with a variety of nonferrous metals, such as zirconium. One of its new applications is super magnets, which is made from an alloy of niobium and titanium. Pure Niobium is a very good superconductor.
There are many kinds of Niobium compounds and they are used as catalysts, eletroceramics, etc. For example, Lithium niobate ( LiNbO3), which is a ferroelectric, is used extensively in mobile telephones and optical modulators, and for the manufacture of surface acoustic wave devices.
Physical and Chemical properties:
Atomic Weight: 92.90638
Melting Point: 2750 K
Boiling Point: 5017 K
Density: 8.57 g/cm3
Phase at Room Temperature: Solid
Ionization Energy: 6.759 eV
Oxidation States: +5, +3
Wikipedia - Basics on Niobium
WebElements - The basic elements of Niobium
Jefferson Lab - Learning about Niobium